Policy Initiatives In India For Rural Teachers Professional Development And Support

International Conference on Professional Development of Rural Teachers
 at Hangzhou Normal University,
China,  23-24 September, 2011

Keynote address : 
POLICY INITIATIVES IN INDIA FOR RURAL TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT

Prof Mohd
Akhtar Siddiqui

New Delhi
The Context
It is said that today the destiny of a nation is shaped in
its classrooms. It is possible only when people in different regions and
sections of the society have access to duly facilitated educational
institutions and teaching is imparted in these institutions by competent and
motivated teachers in an inclusive and stimulating environment.  In fast modernizing traditional societies, rural
areas, to get resource support for development, have to compete with the more
organized, better resourced and politically more influential urban areas.  If their problems are not addressed
discreetly they are likely to face the risk of getting neglected and differently
developed.
Occupationally, India has been an agriculture dominated
country.   Though over the decades, after
independence of the country in 1947, the proportion of urban population, as
also its contribution to national income, has gradually increased and, as a
result,  the country today has as many as
5100 towns and 380 urban agglomerations (Census 2011)  yet, the fact remains that a substantial
section of India’s population still lives in rural areas and, despite a fall in
the ratio of rural population from 72.2% in 2001 to 68.8% in 2011, the rural population
in absolute terms has increased from 741.9 million in 2001 to 833.1 million in
2011 and accordingly the demand for education in these areas has also
increased.  India, with 28 states, six
centrally administered union territories (UTs) and one National Capital
Territory of Delhi, is constitutionally a federal democracy.  The Constitution of India in its Union, State
and Concurrent lists defines the powers and functions of the Center and the
States.  Since 1976, through a
Constitutional amendment, subject of education has been placed on the
Concurrent List.  There are well defined
constitutional provisions and mechanisms for sharing of resources, responsibilities
and policy formulation for education between the Center and the States for
harmonious exercise of their respective powers for the steady development of
education in the country.  Indeed, since
1976 the education policy formulation by the Center in consultation with the
states and its implementation by the states and UTs with considerable support
and hand holding from the Center have brought significant improvement in the
field of education.
Since the dawn of independence, policy planners have
visualized education as the harbinger of national development and as an
essential condition for better quality of life for the Indian masses.  In the present era of globalization it is
rather being considered fundamental to the survival of individuals and the
nation.  Accordingly, renewed initiatives
have been taken by the Centre and the States to provide for greater access to
education to all sections of the society.
During the last few decades, educational
development in India has seen remarkable expansion at elementary, secondary and
tertiary levels in all states.    Although the expanded educational provision
is yet to satisfy the demand of  the
entire  eligible population even at the
school stage  and the standards of
quality and educational investment  in
education sector have yet to reach the levels attained in the developed and
even in some developing countries, yet the scale of educational arrangement
made for the ever burgeoning population of the country  in itself is no mean achievement, especially
when one looks at the poor educational provision and enrolment levels that were
inherited by the nation at the time of independence of the country.  For example, in 1950-51 the number of
elementary and secondary schools was 0.22 million and 7416, respectively and
there were only 20 universities and around 500 colleges.  While in 1950-51 the elementary and secondary
schools enrolled  22.3 million and 1.5
million children, respectively, universities and colleges registered only  0.17 million students.  All these educational institutions have since
shown remarkable progress.  Now there are
1,285,578 elementary schools (2008-09), 168,900 secondary and higher secondary
schools (2006-07), 22,064 colleges for general education (2007-08) and 408 universities
and institutions of national importance.
Enrolment in these institutions also
registered phenomenal growth during these years.  In primary and upper primary schools it went
up  to a whopping 187.9 million children
in 2006-07, in secondary and higher secondary schools it rose to 39.4 million
in 2006-07 and in higher education including professional education  it reached  to 12.38 million students in 2007-08.   Attempts are being made to provide universal
elementary education for all children in the age group 6-14 years as their Fundamental
Right by the year 2014 as envisaged in the Right of Children for Free and
Compulsory Education Act 2009 and universal secondary education by the year
2020.  Initiatives are also being taken
to raise the enrolment levels in higher education from the existing 12.3% (2006-07)
to at least 25% by 2020.
 
 Quality Concern in Education
While working for improving access to education at all levels
for eligible groups of young population in the country,   the
policy planners of the country have been fully conscious of the underlying goal
of quality of education that is being made available to the young citizens.  The accent on quality, as laid in the Report
of the Education Commission (1964-66), demands an “internal transformation” of
education so as to relate it to the life, needs and aspirations of the nation.  Such a transformation in education can be
brought by overhauling the curriculum and developing and empowering the
teachers to implement the curriculum in its right earnest.  Quality education goal becomes meaningful for
the society only when it satisfies the conditions of equity and inclusion for
which ‘it will be necessary to provide for equal opportunity to all not only in
access, but also in the conditions for success ’.  (NPE 1986)  Underscoring the concern for quality of
education, the revised Programme of Action (POA)-1992 observed that ‘teacher
performance is the most crucial input in the field of education.  Whatever policies may be laid down, in the
ultimate analysis, these have to be interpreted and implemented by teachers, as
much through their personal example as through teaching-learning process.
Teacher selection and training competence, motivation and the conditions of
work impinge directly on their performance’.  (POA- 1992)
  The Education Policy
(1986)  stressed that teacher education
is a process of continuous professional development of teachers, that
pre-service and in-service education  are
inseparable components of this process and that in-service education be
provided to all teachers at regular intervals.  While spelling out the action plan for
professional development of  school
teachers,  the POA 1986 envisaged setting
up of  well resourced comprehensive  District
Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs)
 in all rural and urban districts of the
country for elementary school teachers and up-gradation of 200  secondary level teacher training institutions
as Colleges of Teacher  Education (CTEs) and 50 as Institutes of Advanced Studies in Education
(IASEs)
, besides setting up of  State Councils for Educational Research and
Training (SCERTs)
in all states.
Establishment of these institutions got started under a centrally
sponsored scheme (CSS) for teacher education in 1987.  All these institutions were made responsible
for initial professional training and continuous professional development and
support of school teachers and teacher educators.
    
Professional Development
of Rural Teachers
Teachers in government schools, colleges and universities are
recruited by the government at the Union, State or sub state levels, as the
case may be.  Structurally, each state of
the country is divided into administrative/revenue districts, each district is
further subdivided into development blocks in rural areas and wards in urban
areas.  Each block consists of a number
of villages/habitations.  For the purpose
of more effective planning, supervision and resource support, elementary
schools in each block are grouped into small clusters.  At present there are 633 districts divided
into 7123 development blocks which have 74,902 school clusters. (DISE-2008-09)
The number of schools in one block and in one cluster within each block varies
significantly from state to state.  The
average number of schools in a block comes to 183 and in a cluster to 17 which
is not considered as a viable number for the respective resource centers to
effectively satisfy professional development needs of and provide academic
support to teachers coming within their jurisdiction.
Continuous professional development
of school teachers has been expressed as a matter of concern by the University
Education Commission, Secondary Education Commission, National Education Commission
as well as by the National Commission on Teachers  (1983-85) and, as a follow up, Extension Service
Centers, State Institutes of Education , Centers for Continuing Education and
School Complexes were set up across states at different  points of time, each of which provided useful
services in organizing in-service
training programmes for school teachers and head masters for some years.
However, firstly, none of these initiatives could be effectively sustained for
a long time for varied reasons;  secondly, none was planned keeping in view
district or sub-district as a more viable unit for planning and organizing
INSET;  thirdly, none could distinctively
address professional development needs of the rural  teachers though many of them provided in-service
training to rural teachers along with urban school teachers;  and fourthly, each initiative could cater to
the needs of only a limited number of teachers.  The education policy perspective document,
Challenge of Education (1984) clearly observed that in education there exist
glaring disparities between rural and urban communities and in the provision of
educational institutions and facilities and teachers in schools for these communities;
and that those teachers who happen to be working in rural or remote schools
hardly get any opportunity to go to summer courses or to orientation programmes
and develop themselves professionally.
 
Elementary School Teachers
 At present more than 5.79 million teachers are
in position in elementary schools across the country.  More than four million of them are working in
rural schools.  A large number of them
are recruited by the district administration from within the local areas. More
than 90 percent of them are appointed on regular basis.  Although they are expected to be trained
teachers as per the qualifications prescribed by the National Council for
Teacher Education (NCTE), in those states where training capacity is deficient,
some of them are appointed without training and provided a special in-service
training at Block Resource Centers (BRCs) and are also required to acquire
their training qualification through distance mode while remaining at work.
 
 
 
 District Institutes of Education and Training
The educational planners were aware
of  the fact  that in states  educational planning is being done keeping in
view the state’s aggregate needs and sub-state units i.e. districts are being
allocated resources  on almost uniform
basis irrespective of their varying needs for educational development and  the district authorities have hardly any role
to play in this process; that management of education in the districts,
especially organization of teacher development and school support  services, receive  varying degrees of attention from the state
administration; and that teacher education
within the states  has developed
in an unplanned manner with some districts having more facilities and some
others, especially the rural and interior ones,  much less than their demand.  The Policy document (1986) therefore declared
that the present elementary teacher education system will be radically
transformed by setting up a DIET in each district which will be a nodal
institution for improving quality of elementary education in the district.  DIETs started coming up from 1987 after the
launch of the central scheme for teacher education.   Since
a majority of districts, around 70 percent, consist of rural areas and, as per
the State Report Cards for 2008-09, out of 1,285,576 elementary schools in the
country, 960,132 (75%) are rural government/local bodies run elementary schools,
the DIETs in these districts are now able to cater the pre-service and in-service
professional development needs of teachers in rural schools in a big way.  This initiative for teacher development is
first of its kind which paid equitable attention to professional development
needs of rural and urban teachers through decentralized planning and
organization of programmes and support services.   By the
year 2008, 556 DIETs were established in rural as well as urban districts. (SSA-Framework,
2008)  However, in some smaller districts
where setting up of a full-fledged DIET is not viable, it has been decided to set
up a District Resource Centre (DRC) which only caters to in-service education
needs of teachers.  The DIETs/DRCs  are expected to: take initiatives to upgrade
the quality of teaching-learning process in the district’s elementary schools; prepare
elementary and pre-school teachers through pre-service and in-service
education; develop district-specific curricula and teaching learning material; provide
support to resource centers at sub-district levels i.e. BRCs and Cluster
Resource Centers (CRCs); prepare district plans for  universalization of elementary education; conduct
research to build an improved understanding of elementary education in the
district; undertake activities to improve and support community involvement in
elementary education; and support training programmes in adult education.  In 2007, a review committee appointed by the NCTE  reported that the DIETs were able to organize
good number of in-service education  programmes across all districts for regular
teachers, para -teachers and untrained teachers from within the districts
though initial training programmes in most cases received precedence over
in-service programmes. 
In 2001, the Government of India
rolled out a programme called Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) with the object to
provide equitable quality elementary education for all children in 6-14 age group
by 2010 with active participation of the local community.   Broad strategies of the programme included:
institutional reforms and improved efficiency of the delivery system;
sustainable financing; community ownership of school based interventions;
institutional capacity building; improving mainstream educational
administration; community based monitoring with full transparency;  habitation as a unit of planning;
accountability to community; priority to education of girls; focus on special
groups; thrust on quality; critical and
central role of teachers;
and preparation of district elementary education
plans. The programme also included 20 days compulsory in-service training every
year for all elementary school teachers to be organized at DIETs or at BRCs
under the coordination of DIETs.  Since
2008, the annual in-service training period has been curtailed to ten days.  Guidelines for organizing in-service programmes,
as prepared by the NCERT, stress that teachers should be so trained through
these programmes that they become Reflective
Practitioners.
  
Block Resource Centers and Cluster
Resource Centers
In the course of implementation of
teacher development and school support programmes as envisaged in the NPE and
in the centrally sponsored scheme for teacher education  and during the review of implementation of
the policy and programmes it was revealed that although the district was a
viable unit for decentralized planning and management of elementary education,
still there remained  inter-district and
intra- district variations in the achievement of the UEE targets, especially in
large and educationally backward districts.
This necessitated both, a special attention on educationally backward
districts and a more focused attention at sub-district level to expedite the
achievement of the targets.  Hence, to address
these issues, the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in
early nineties in some rural districts of educationally backward states which
was later, extended to many such districts in other states. The programme
continued almost until the start of the SSA in the year 2001 which covered all
the six hundred odd districts.  As a part
of the DPEP, in each selected district BRCs were set up in all the development
blocks and, within each block, for a more focused professional support to
teachers, elementary schools were grouped into several small clusters and for
each such cluster of schools a CRC was set up.  Under SSA, BRCs and CRCs have been set up in
all the rural districts and Urban Resource Centers (URCs) in all the urban
districts. All BRCs and almost 95% CRCs across the country are now operational.
BRCs and CRCs are expected to function
as teachers’ professional development and resource support hubs and mentor the
teachers and steer their development with the help of BRC co-ordinators (Block
Resource Persons-BRPs), CRC co-ordinators (Cluster Resource Persons-CRPs), innovative
teachers and subject experts on continuing basis.  The academic support and professional
development  roles and responsibilities
of BRCs include:  Develop the centre as a
rich academic resource centre with ample resource/reference material for
concerned teachers; conduct regular school visits for addressing emerging
pedagogic issues and those related to school development; collate and prioritize
training needs; develop  training material
relevant to local context;  prepare and
maintain a data base of teachers and trainers and form  resource groups in different subjects for
primary and upper primary levels; organize  training of teachers and meetings with
teachers to discuss academic issues and design strategies for better school
performance;  and set  quality improvement targets in consultation
with all key stakeholders and monitor their achievement in collaboration with
DIET.  Roles and responsibilities of CRCs
include: Organization of monthly reflection meetings to discuss academic
issues, and share innovations and action research; regular visits to schools
and sharing of success stories; identification of training needs; providing
resource material and support for TLM development by teachers; arranging
locally relevant and contextual demonstration in real classroom situation as a
part of training; and making yearly calendar of activities.  Thus, we see that BRCs and CRCs along with
their 1 lakh resource teachers can be the cutting edge for academic renewal and
regular academic support and mentoring of teachers and schools in all the rural
districts.
  It has
also been emphasized that in order to cater to the varied needs of different
categories of teachers like, trained, untrained and newly inducted teachers and
contribute towards and sustain their professional development variety of need
based in-service training  programmes  should be organized by these centers.  In the revised SSA guidelines (2008) while
limiting the duration of annual in-service training to 10 days, it has been observed
that it is neither desirable nor practical to impart the in-service training to
elementary teachers at one stretch. So, it may be organized in different phases.  The guidelines recommend use of split model
for organizing this training.  For
example, 6-8 days training may be organized at the BRC level (Phase I).  This may be followed by one or two days training
organized in actual school situation (Phase II).  After the training, the teachers may go to
their schools and field test the new concepts, interventions and strategies in
real classroom situation for 2-3 months (Phase III).  Thereafter, they may be invited to the CRC
for one or two days meeting for sharing of their experiences and reflective
discussion (Phase IV). Besides this training, BRCs also organize many other
training programmes whose duration varies from State to State. For example, in
the  eastern state of Bihar these
programmes are organized for 5,10,20,30, and 60 days duration for different
groups of teachers.  The state SSA office
has drawn a flexible four phase in-service training programme called Ujala I,
Ujala II,Ujala III and refresher programme in different school subjects which
has been implemented with varying degrees of success, as reported by the
teachers. However, panchayat appointed contract teachers as well as regular
teachers generally demand more subject-wise resource teachers to help them deal
with their subject related problems. BRCs organize both residential as well as
non residential training programmes round the year.
An important institution, which though
exists at the state level and is not directly and exclusively engaged in rural
teachers’ professional development,  is
the State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT) which was again
conceived in the teacher education scheme of 1987 as a state level apex
organization to co-ordinate the activities of the DIETs in the state and
monitor and control their functioning, besides itself organizing professional
development programmes for teachers; undertaking development of state specific
elementary school curriculum, textbooks and resource material; organizing  school based
research, seminars, etc.   It was
envisaged that the state institutes of education (SIEs) would either be
upgraded to SCERTs or new SCERTs would be set up in all states.  At present SCERTs are functional in 20
states. These Councils are part funded by the Central Government. SCERT is the
key link between the district level institutions and state and central
governments.
  
Secondary School Teachers
As Piaget rightly observed, it is secondary
school where children “learn to think” and acquire abstract thinking
skills.  For a country like India,  secondary education is the stage where a large
number of children would terminate their education  and this stage provides them the last chance
to  “learn to think “.  Hence, quality of education at this stage is
all too important for children as well as for the society.  Professional development and support to teachers
teaching at this stage in rural as well as urban areas, therefore, has been
considered as equally important in the education policy and in later pronouncements
made by the government in the Five Year Plans.
The POA 1992 resolved that, as a
strategy towards professional development of secondary teachers, their in-service
education will be institutionalized.  At
present, 2.2 million teachers are working in secondary schools (2006-07).  More than 1.5 million of them are serving in
rural area schools.    Two important institutions namely, Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) and Institutes
of Advanced Studies in Education (IASEs)
were visualized in the teacher
education scheme of 1987 for institutionalization of in-service education of secondary
school teachers.  In the year 2010, the Rashtriya Madhayamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
which
is a programme for universalisation of access to and improvement of
quality of secondary education, was launched by the Central government.  The programme re-emphasizes the need for
continuous professional development and support of secondary teachers for
quality improvement in education.  A
substantial amount of funds of about rupees forty billion has been earmarked in
the XI Plan for overhauling and strengthening teacher development structures
and programmes included in the teacher education scheme of 1987.
 
 CTE and IASE for Secondary Teachers
Professional Development
 The CSS 1987 provided for upgradation of 200
secondary teacher education institutions (STEIs) into CTEs and 50 as IASEs so
as to help them organize in-service education and support for working secondary
teachers and teacher educators.  As per
the CSS guidelines, as revised in 2004, the state government would be supported
to upgrade or set up one new CTE per three districts and one IASE per 20
districts.  At present (X Plan), out of
104 sanctioned CTEs, 92 are functional and out of 44 sanctioned IASEs 41 are operational
in 29 states/UTs.  A sizeable number of
them cater teachers drawn from secondary schools located in rural areas.
 CTEs are envisaged to perform following roles
and functions: Organize pre-service teacher education courses for secondary
teachers; organize subject oriented in-service programmes of more than one week
duration and theme specific in-service programmes of less than one week
duration for secondary teachers in a manner that every teacher undergoes at
least one subject oriented course in five years, apart from theme specific
courses; provide resource support to teachers, secondary schools, professional
bodies and school complexes;  and conduct
experimentation and innovation in secondary education.  IASEs are expected to perform such functions
as:  Conduct M Ed, M Phil and Ph. D
programmes to prepare elementary and secondary teacher educators; conduct
in-service education programmes for teacher educators, principals and
supervisors; provide academic guidance and resource support to DIETs and CTEs;
conduct advanced level fundamental and applied research and experimentation in
education; and develop instructional material for teachers and teacher
educators.  RMSA Framework also calls for
development of such mechanism by the states whereby the secondary school
teachers are able to share their experiences and learn from each other and thus
develop a learning community and culture.
The Framework has also made it compulsory for all secondary teachers,
vice-principals and principals to attend at least one 5 day in-service
education programme at CTE/IASE every year.
As found out in the mid-term assessment of the CSS, the scheme has
contributed to the development of teacher education system by way of
strengthening its institutional resources and improving the ethos for quality
education and research in these institutions through faculty enhancement and
development.  In-service education, it is
observed in the assessment report, has improved quality consciousness among
secondary school teachers and teacher educators
                                                                                                  
Issues to be addressed
Performance of BRCs and CRCs varies
across the country.  Besides other
things, it depends how   resource
teachers in these centers have been selected and have been trained and
supported by the district level institutions.
Where selections of resource teachers have been on merit and in
appropriate number and intensive training is arranged for them and they are
clear on the kind of change desired in the classrooms, outcomes expected from
enhanced quality and performance standards, they are able to deliver much
better than others. There are other inter-connected issues which also need
attention of the organizers of these institutions.   Teachers often face training fatigue who find
trainings are of poor quality, lack relevance to their work, and are conducted
without adequate scheduling.  Training
quality is also compromised due to inadequate number of good master trainers (MRPs).  MRPs do not get time for discussions before
and after training on the content and conduct of the training.   Experts for school subjects for classes IV
and above are not easily available.  Advanced
planning of trainings is not adequately achieved in many states as fund flow is
irregular.  Selection of teachers is not
based on any assessment of who needs what training. The selection of teachers
is either arbitrary or based on the approach that one size fits all.  Training content is also limited and
repetitive.  As for secondary teachers,
the CTEs and IASEs, due to shortage of faculty; lack of their own continuous
professional development; lack of networking among IASEs, CTEs, and DIETs; lack
of focus in in-service programmes; and non availability of funds, have not been
able to contribute to professional
development and support of teachers and teacher educators significantly.
Another issue that the other forms of
professional development opportunities that lie outside the institutionalized
professional development programmes discussed so far like, exposure visits,
attending seminars, participating as trainers, etc., are not considered by the
authorities as real avenues of professional development, especially  at the elementary stage and hence, no
opportunity is afforded for teachers to utilize these avenues in addition to
the programmes scheduled by the earlier mentioned institutions for prescribed
durations.
 
 Looking Ahead
In order that the above discussed structures
for rural elementary teachers perform their resource support and professional
development functions effectively, there is a need to strengthen their linkage
with DIETs  and the capacity of all the
three sub state level decentralized institutions needs to be duly
strengthened.  The Working Group for XI
Plan also suggested that there should be one CRC at ten schools and that each
BRC should have at least 5 resource teachers who may have specific subject
–wise competence.  In view of the
constraints that are  faced by the BRCs
and CRCs and their RPs there is a need to choose some focus areas of activities
and prioritize them to make them relatively more effective. Choices have to be
made based on requirements and constraints like, needs of a particular
programme say, curriculum or evaluation, and budget available to conduct that
activity, and skills and capabilities of the available personnel. This is also
recommended that the resource teachers in the BRCs and CRCs should also receive
regular training of say, 20 days every year to refresh and update themselves.
So far as strengthening of DIETs is
concerned it has been observed that over the years their scope of work due to
resource and manpower  constraints has
shrunk considerably and as a result their professional support to teachers provided
by organizing in-service programmes and by handholding and leadership of the
BRCs and CRCs has not been optimal. These institutions need their own cadre of
faculty at the required strength who should be regularly reoriented in the
subject disciplines and new pedagogies and other relevant areas at the IASEs
and CTEs.  Since most of the districts
are very large and have massive in-service teacher education and support needs
to cater, DIETs need additional resource support to expand and improve their
activities.  These structures have also
suffered due to the Plan based approach followed in their funding, both by the
Center and the States which has persistently created a state of uncertainty
about sustainability of the central support to the teacher education scheme.  They need to be incorporated in the states’
educational set up as permanent structures and considered in educational
policies as institutions requiring regular and committed support. The Central
government is likely to make a long term commitment to the CSS once its
revision which is underway is finalized.
In the RMSA framework this has also been recommended that DIETs should
be so strengthened that they are able to cater to professional development
needs of the secondary teachers as well.
It is believed that this would help in providing a more intimate and
frequent academic support especially to rural area secondary teachers who find
a CTE or an IASE for them too far and difficult to reach, that too at frequent
intervals.    

As for CTEs and IASEs, new CTEs and IASEs need to be set up as per norms
and required faculty should be recruited immediately on regular basis.   Faculty from these institutions should also
be sent out occasionally for their professional development and may also be
exchanged among these institutions depending upon their expertise and interest.
An
incentive linked and performance based professional development policy
particularly for rural teachers needs to be framed by the Center as quality
education to all up to secondary stage is their direct concern also.  Some states like,  Andhra Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir have
devised some such schemes to encourage rural teachers for their professional
development and improved performance.   In Andhra Pradesh, teachers are given some
bonus payment for improvement in student performance due to use of innovative
methods and better curricular transaction. Schools outperformed when teachers received
such bonus.  In Jammu & Kashmir the
government has decided to roll out a special incentive programme for teachers
serving in the distant rural areas of the state.  Almost all states need to evolve a
comprehensive policy for rural teachers’ professional development and support to
improve performance of rural schools.
The ultimate goal of all professional development and support
initiatives has to be to turn the teachers into reflective practitioners who should
in themselves be conscious of the contexts and learning needs of their students
and interested in their own continuous professional development for the benefit
of their students.
                                         
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12 Replies to “Policy Initiatives In India For Rural Teachers Professional Development And Support

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  3. Education in India If you want to build your profession though education in India so it’s a good place both for education as well as for explore. The main question is of not getting the study abroad information so now this is set on stays on our Ugottit website for proper directions.

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